Graphene and 2D Materials
Graphene is the title for an atom-thick honeycomb sheet of carbon atoms. It is the building block for additional graphitic materials. Graphene is the fundamental building block for other graphite materials; it also constitutes a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, so-called two-dimensional (2D) materials (they are known as 2D because they expands in only two dimensions: length and width; as the material is at most one atom thick, the third dimension, height, is considered to be zero.
One classification of nanomaterials is evolved from the number of dimensions of a material, which are outside the nanoscale (<100 nm) range. Appropriately, in zero-dimensional (0D) nanomaterials all the dimensions are calculated within the nanoscale (no dimension is larger than 100 nm). Most frequently, 0D nanomaterials are nanoparticles.In one-dimensional nanomaterials (1D), one dimension is exterior the nanoscale. This class involves nanotubes, nanorods, and nanowires. In two-dimensional nanomaterials (2D), two dimensions are exterior the nanoscale and one dimension is only a single or one or two atomic layers thick. This class reveals plate-like shapes and involves graphene and another monolayer materials like MXenes, black phosphorous phosphorene) and diatomic hexagonal boron nitride.